Before World War II Europe The Modernist movement in architecture was an attempt to create a nonhistorical architecture of Functionalism in which a new sense of space would be created with the help of modern materials. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos opposed the use of any ornament at all and designed purist compositions of bald, functional blocks such as the Steiner House at Viennaone of the first private houses of reinforced concrete.
See Article History Alternative Title: Graphic design is therefore a collaborative discipline: The evolution of graphic design as a practice and profession has been closely bound to technological innovationssocietal needs, and the visual imagination of practitioners.
Graphic design has been practiced in various forms throughout history; indeed, strong examples of graphic design date back to manuscripts in ancient ChinaEgyptand Greece. As printing and book production developed in the 15th century, advances in graphic design developed alongside it over subsequent centuries, with compositors or typesetters often designing pages as they set the type.
In the late 19th century, graphic design emerged as a distinct profession in the West, in part because of the job specialization process that occurred there, and in part because of the new technologies and commercial possibilities brought about by the Industrial Revolution.
New production methods led to the separation of the design of a communication medium e. Increasingly, over the course of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, advertising agencies, book publishers, and magazines hired art directors who organized all visual elements of the communication and brought them into a harmonious whole, creating an expression appropriate to the content.
In typographer William A. Dwiggins coined the term graphic design to identify the emerging field. Throughout the 20th century, the technology available to designers continued to advance rapidly, as did the artistic and commercial possibilities for design.
The profession expanded enormously, and graphic designers created, among other things, magazine pages, book jackets, posters, compact-disc covers, postage stamps, packaging, trademarks, signs, advertisements, kinetic titles for television programs and motion pictures, and Web sites.
By the turn of the 21st century, graphic design had become a global profession, as advanced technology and industry spread throughout the world. Typography is discussed in this essay as an element of the overall design of a visual communication; for a complete history, see typography.
Similarly, the evolution of the printing process is discussed in this essay as it relates to developments in graphic design; for a complete history, see printing. Historical foundations Manuscript design in antiquity and the Middle Ages Although its advent as a profession is fairly recent, graphic design has roots that reach deep into antiquity.
Illustrated manuscripts were made in ancient China, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The ancient Egyptian Book of the Deadwhich contained texts intended to aid the deceased in the afterlife, is a superb example of early graphic design.
Hieroglyphic narratives penned by scribes are illustrated with colourful illustrations on rolls of papyrus.
Words and pictures are unified into a cohesive whole: Flat areas of colour are bound by firm brush contours that contrast vibrantly with the rich texture of the hieroglyphic writing.
During the Middle Ages, manuscript books preserved and propagated sacred writings.
These early books were written and illustrated on sheets of treated animal skin called parchmentor vellum, and sewn together into a codex format with pages that turned like the pages of contemporary books. In Europe, monastic writing rooms had a clear division of labour that led to the design of books.
A scholar versed in Greek and Latin headed the writing room and was responsible for the editorial content, design, and production of books. Scribes trained in lettering styles spent their days bent over writing tables, penning page after page of text.
They indicated the place on page layouts where illustrations were to be added after the text was written, using a light sketch or a descriptive note jotted in the margin. Illuminators, or illustrators, rendered pictures and decorations in support of the text.May 07, · Blair Kamin has been the Chicago Tribune’s architecture critic since A graduate of Amherst College and the Yale University School of Architecture, he has also been a .
Frank Lloyd Wright's Dana House: The Illustrated Story of an Architectural Masterpiece (Dover Architecture) Kindle Edition. - Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright was a Nature lover and an architect.
He reflected on the natural world and applied existing styles to his architecture. He was born in Wisconsin, on June 8, , and died in Phoenix, Arizona, on April 9, , at the age of Frank Lloyd Wright is essentially the "father" of Prairie style, and the acknowledged master of the prairie house.
Prairie houses were well suited to the flat, open spaces of the Midwest, and their horizontal compositions helped them blend into the landscape.4/4(1). The house was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and built between and It is located in Bear Run, Pennsylvania. The house is built on top of a waterfall on the side of a hill.
Frank Lloyd Wright designed the house to appear as if it wasn't even standing on solid ground. Descriptive criticism: Every piece of artwork ever done has consisted of elements and principles, which make up what the piece is.
Important Art by Frank Lloyd Wright. The below artworks are the most important by Frank Lloyd Wright - that both overview the major creative periods, and .