The Great Depression began shortly after this report was issued, causing living conditions and employment opportunities to fall everywhere in the country. The most important thing the IRA accomplished is said to be the promotion of the exercise of tribal self-governing powers.
Among the more important provisions were returns to tribal government, self-management of assets and other provisions to deal with the long-term welfare of remaining Indian tribes such as vocational education. This Act essentially overturned the Dawes Act that for five decades had parceled Indian Territory out to individuals in hopes of speeding the assimilation of Indians through private ownership Indian reorganization act land and breaking Indian reorganization act the reservation system.
What were the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act? Also affirms the right for mining to occur on the lands of the Papago tribe in Arizona, so long as the tribe is compensated. Section 4 — prevents the sale, gift, exchange or transfer of Indian Territory.
Section 5 — the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to acquire land through purchase, gift, exchange etc. This land is held in trust, if necessary and exempt from state and local taxes. Section 6 — authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to set forestry and livestock regulations to protect lands designated for Indians.
The lands must not deteriorate under the watch of the Department of the Interior. This is revolving credit repaid into a fund for all tribes. The transactions in this fund are reported to Congress. Section 12 — Directs the Secretary of the Interior to appoint Indians to administrative positions that affect Indian tribes with subsequent vacancies giving preference to Indian candidates.
The DOI sets and maintains standards for individuals to hold positions, regardless of civil service laws.
Section 13 — Details territories and possessions of the United States that are not covered by sections of this law. Section 15 — establishes the right of Indians to bring suit against the United States and appropriations to Indian tribes cannot be used to offset claims brought by Indians against the government.
Section 16 — proclaims the rights of Indians to form tribal governments for the common welfare of the people living on the organization. The Secretary of the Interior sets the rules of election and approves the constitution and bylaws.
Section 17 — sets the provisions by which Indians living on a reservation may incorporate into a tribe. With this charter, the tribe may purchase and sell land including parts of the reservation.
This Section also protects the charter from revocation, unless by Act of Congress. Section 18 — allows Indians living on reservations to vote against this act and have the provisions not apply to them. The Secretary of the Interior, within one year of the approval of the Indian Reorganization Act, will call a secret ballot election to approve the Act for that tribe after giving thirty days prior notice.
The goals of the Dawes Act included dismantling tribes as social units, promoting native farmers, encouraging individualism and opening up lands currently held by Indians to white settlers. The IRA reversed this policy by working to create an economic backbone for tribal areas with self-government and minimizing the effect of outside settlers.
This land however, was not always viable, could be sold and many Indians were left landless, leading to the revisions that would become the Indian Reorganization Act.
The Dawes Act made no considerations for tribal and cultural traditions of Indians and instead simply provided a framework for the easy exploitation of natives.
What have been challenges to the Indian Reorganization Act? After a lengthy legal battle were a lower federal court found Section 5 illegal, the case made its way to the Supreme Court where it was remanded to a lower court.
The DOI revised its trust regulations and allowed the Sioux tribe to reapply for trust. It was challenged again, but this time the lower federal court upheld section 5.
The Supreme Court now refuses to hear more about the issue.In spite of strenuous objections by Christian missionary groups, Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act) in The IRA has three objectives: (1) economic development of the tribes, (2) organization of tribal governments, and (3) Indian civil and cultural rights.
Indian-chartered corporations in accordance with the Act of June 18, (48 Stat. ) (25 U.S.C. et seq.), and of making and administering loans to individual Indians and to associations or corporate groups of Indians of Oklahoma in accordance with the Act of.
Indian Reorganization Act: Indian Reorganization Act, (June 18, ), measure enacted by the U.S. Congress, aimed at decreasing federal control of American Indian affairs and increasing Indian self-government and responsibility. In gratitude for the Indians’ services to the country in World War I, Congress in The Indian Reorganization Act of By Murray Lee | Published: September 2, In my recent blog post on Black Elk, a holy man and healer of the Oglala Sioux, I mentioned how the early reservations were before the Indian Reorganization Act no food, inferior shelter, meager provisions and uncaring superintendents.
at (reviewing tax-exemption provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act to find that state income taxation of an off-reservation tribal ski-resort was allowable, but that state "compensating use taxation" of the tribal ski-resort was proscribed by the federal statute); In re City of Nome, P.
The Indian Reorganization Act of reversed some of the provisions of the Dawes Act of by allowing the Native Americans to return to tribal government and by allowing the Native Americans.