Analysis of the preindustrial industrial and postindustrial societies essay

Industrialism, at least within our experience of it for more than years, never reaches a point of equilibrium or a level plateau.

Analysis of the preindustrial industrial and postindustrial societies essay

A commitment to human welfare and social planning facilitates expansion of the welfare state and human services, further increasing white-collar and professional employment.

Yet, such a society is not without tensions and conflict, both within the social structure and between the social structure, polity, and culture. It is by pointing out such tensions and problems that postindustrial theorists attempt not only to describe the present and the future but also to shape the future.

Post-industrial society - Wikipedia

In one of the more recent contributions to the postindustrial literature, Fred Block is clear about the role social analysis plays in shaping the future. He points out that "[social theory] has real consequences, because individuals cannot do without some kind of conception of the type of society in which [they] live" Blockp.

Block's book represents a return to the analysis of postindustrial society after a brief hiatus during the s that Block attributes to the breakdown of mainstream and leftist social theory, and the reemergence of a tradition of economic liberalism quiescent since the Great Depression. Block's analysis carries forward the focus of prior postindustrial theory on social structure, yet gives scant attention to the role of codified theoretical knowledge, the university and professional groups.

Instead, Block looks at key aspects of the changing postindustrial economy of the United States in an effort to develop alternative possibilities for the future. He notes that a postindustrial economy utilizing advanced technology, and having a substantial service sector, would be most productive if it kept some distance from the dictates of classical economic theory.

Analysis of the preindustrial industrial and postindustrial societies essay

Specifically, productivity is likely enhanced by: Block's work provides a useful extension of postindustrial theory into the more traditional economic domains of labor, capital, and measured economic output.

The book may represent a revival of analyses of postindustrial society, perhaps under the alternative concept of postmodern society. However, before considering the notion of postmodern society, some criticisms of the concept of postindustrial society need to be mentioned.

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Much of the critical literature focuses on Bell's work, since it is viewed as one of the best expressions of postindustrial theory. One criticism of postindustrial theory is that it overemphasizes the role of theoretical knowledge in decision making.

Although critics acknowledge that formal knowledge is more important than ever before, they contend that technical experts and scientific knowledge have not come to play the central role in decision making in government or corporations that postindustrial theorists said they would.

Within government, political dynamics of the industrial era persist, and within the corporation "the expert and his knowledge are, for the most part, embedded in the corporate bureaucracy" Cohen and Zysmanp.

Also, critics point out that while there may be more scientists, more persons with advanced education, and more money spent on research and development, these may be only tenuously related to increases in the amount and effective use of theoretical knowledge Kumar Critics also question the attention given by postindustrial theorists to the service sector, and to white-collar and professional work.

As with theoretical knowledge, critics agree the service sector has grown, yet question the focus of postindustrial theorists.

Critics remind us that the service sector has always been a major segment of preindustrial and industrial society Hartwellthat most service employment is in low-skilled, low-paid work, and that increases in white-collar and professional employment are a consequence of dynamics embedded in industrial society.

Relatedly, most of the increases in white-collar and professional employment are in clerical positions and jobs like teaching and nursing, jobs that carry less autonomy and income than traditional professional occupations.

Perhaps most important, critics argue that a focus on the service sector fails to adequately acknowledge the key role that manufacturing would play in a postindustrial economy, including the dependence of the service sector on a dynamic manufacturing sector Cohen and Zysman One response to these and other criticisms e.

Postindustrial theory merely chose to focus on other developments that may hold insights into the future of advanced industrial society. A related response to criticisms is to point out that critics have frequently acknowledged the validity of postindustrial claims of an increasing role for formal and theoretical knowledge, the increasing importance of technical developments in information processing, and the rise of a service sector with a good number of white-collar and professional workers.

The points of contention between postindustrial theory and its critics appear to center on the general portrait of society provided by postindustrial theorists: Is this society best seen as a new type of society, or as a logical extension of advancing industrialization Kumar ; ; ; Ritzer ; Giddens ?

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Also, what are the implications of this image of society, not only for describing the present and future, but for shaping both? Although the variety of work dealing with postmodern society makes a clear definition difficult Smart ; Kumarit seems reasonable to say postmodern society differs from postindustrial society in having the more nebulous reference point of a type of society coming after "modern" society.

Whereas studies of postindustrial society understandably give substantial attention to technical and economic factors, studies of postmodern society broaden the focus to bring political and especially cultural phenomenon more to the center of analysis Kumar This shift in focus helps explain why analyses of the cultural dynamics of postindustrial society are frequently considered in terms of the dynamics of postmodern society e.

For many authors, postmodernism is the culture of a postindustrial society e. Analyses of postmodern society may differ from postindustrial analyses not only in substantive focus, but also in basic presuppositions regarding the nature of social reality.

Professional essay on Comparative Analysis of PreIndustrial and Industrial Societies

While studies of postmodern society can reflect a standard social science framework, what has come to be called postmodern theory often includes a critique of science that undermines traditional social scientific inquiry Turner ; Bogard Although the central tenants of postmodern theory are still unclear Smart ; Ritzer ; Rosenauit is possible to note some major themes.

Reflecting the influence of literary criticism, postmodern theory often views "social and cultural reality, and the social sciences themselves [as] linguistic constructions" Brownp. Authoritative images of what is real are seen to emerge through rhetorical processes in which "people establish repertoires of categories by which certain aspects of what is to be the case are fixed, focused, or forbidden" Brownp.

Postmodern theory critiques the notion that signs and symbols adequately capture reality, and posits that signs and symbols are the only reality we truly know Brown The reality of the social world described by social scientists is viewed as inseparable from the discourse through which social scientists come to signify some descriptions of the world as more legitimate than others Lemert An essay about Daniel Bell’s ‘post-industrial society’, criticisms of his analysis of the role of information and knowledge in relation to contemporary social change and the extent of these changes.

Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from to Pre-industrial is a time before there were machines and tools to help perform tasks en masse.

There are many types of societies, but three of the most prevalent types are the preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial. The preindustrial society is very limited by its agricultural focus. Industrial societies use advances in technology and mass production to support a large population with three distinct social classes.

In postindustrial societies the focus shifts from mass production to technological innovation. Preindustrial societies are primarily agricultural, and because of this there is little variation of social classes.

There are many types of societies, but three of the most prevalent types are the preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial. The preindustrial society is very limited by its agricultural focus. Industrial societies use advances in technology and mass production to support a large population with three distinct social classes.

Professionally written essays on this topic: Comparative Analysis of PreIndustrial and Industrial Societies. Comparative Analysis of PreIndustrial and Industrial Societies. so-called revolution to Sir Richard Arkwright who lived in the eighteenth century (Fisk 25).

Of course, these are the very early r.

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Postindustrial Society Compare and contrast the terms industrial and post-industrial societies Essay Compare and contrast the terms industrial and post-industrial societies Essay Society can broadly be defined as the aggregate of people in a more or less ordered community or an economic, social, or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals.
This perspective is the antithesis of P-IS, as capitalism is shaping information and knowledge and simultaneously information and knowledge are sustaining capitalism. When contextualised in this way, technology and knowledge are deployed as an instrument to extend the existing capitalist system.
Pre-industrial society - Wikipedia The term was also used extensively by social philosopher Ivan Illich in his paper Tools for Conviviality.
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