Could anyone help me? Married a woman who is type-A and very career and academically oriented. She has become pretty frequently foul-mouthed and opinionated, doubtful of the Bible and questioning of everything in it, severely untrusting of the church, and with lengthy periods with nothing but criticism for me.
Capitalism is in a blind alley. The crisis of capitalism on a world scale falls with special severity on the shoulders of women and youth. Already in the 19th century, Marx pointed to the tendency for capitalism to make super-profits from the exploitation of women and children.
In the first volume of Capital, Marx writes: In America alone some 40 million women have joined the workforce over the past 50 years; in Europe another 30 million. Inonly about a third of all American women of working age had a paid job; last year the proportion was nearly three-quarters.
At some point in their lives, say the statisticians, 99 per cent of all American women will now work for pay. The employment of women is, in itself, a progressive development.
It is the prior condition to the liberation of women from the narrow confines of the home and the bourgeois family, and their full and free development as human beings and members of society. But the capitalist system regards women merely as a convenient source of cheap labour and part of the "reserve army of labour" to be drawn on when there is a shortage of labour in certain areas of production, and discarded again when the need disappears.
We saw this in both world wars, when women were drafted into the factories to replace men who had been called up into the army and then sent back to the home when the war ended.
Women were again encouraged to enter the workplaces during the period of capitalist upswing of the s and s, when their role was analogous to that of the immigrant workers--as a reservoir of cheap labour.
In the more recent period, the number of women workers has increased to fill gaps in the productive process. In the past, women were conditioned by class society to be politically indifferent, unorganised and, above all, passive, thereby providing a social base for reaction.
But this situation is changing with the changing role of women in society. This is a very progressive phenomenon, pregnant with consequences for the future.
In the same way that the bourgeoisie has largely lost its former mass social reserves of reaction in the peasantry in the USA, Japan and Western Europe, so women no longer constitute a reserve of backwardness and reaction as in the past.
The crisis of capitalism, with its constant attacks on women and the family, will further radicalise ever broader layers of women and push them in a revolutionary direction.
It is important that Marxists understand the great revolutionary potential of women and take the necessary steps to tap into it.
Women are potentially far more revolutionary than men because they are fresh and untainted by years of conservative routine that so often characterises "normal" trade union existence. Anyone who has seen a strike of women can bear witness to their tremendous determination, courage and elan.
It is the duty of Marxists to support every measure to encourage women to join and participate in the unions, with equal rights and equal responsibilities.
The First International The woman question has always occupied a central place in the theory and practice of Marxism. The First International took the struggle for reforms very seriously.
The following is a questionnaire on working conditions, written by Marx at the end of Augustsent out by the General Council to all the sections: Age and sex of the employed.
Number of the employed. Salaries and wages; a apprentices; b wages by the day or piece work; scale paid by middlemen. Sort of workshop and work" overcrowding, defective ventilation, want of sunlight, use of gaslight. Effect of employment upon the physical condition. Marx wrote in the third chapter Limitation of the working day: They proposed eight hours work as the legal limit of the working day.
Night work was to be permitted only exceptionally in trades or branches of trades specified by law. The general tendency must be to suppress all night work. However, the document goes on: By adult persons we understand all persons having reached or passed the age of 18 years.
In an article in the press on Sweating in Type-Writing Offices in which she proposed that a union should be formed both by those who typed at home and in business houses where, as she wrote, "if you want to live by your labour you must work at high pressure and a good many more hours than eight a day.
How relevant these lines sound a hundred years later! An important turning-point was the strike of the London match-girls inwhen this most exploited and downtrodden section of workers revolted against their oppressors. At the factory in Bow in the poor East End, the workforce was entirely made up of women, from 13 year old girls to mothers of large families.
The barbaric conditions there were similar to those experienced by workers in the Third World now.
The use of white phosphorus for making matches produced the dreadful disease which ate away the jaw-bone, as a result of having to eat food in the polluted atmosphere of the workshop.
Bad wages were made worse by the iniquitous system of fines, often imposed for the most trivial errors, brought on by fatigue.Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender First published Mon May 12, ; substantive revision Wed Oct 25, Feminism is said to be the movement to end women's oppression (hooks , 26).
These ideas defined Japanese society up until the end of World War II.
The integration of Confucian hierarchical structures where men were dominate shifted gender roles into a patriarchal system. Both men and women shared expectations under the Confucian system: loyalty and courage.
The Journal of Religion and Society promotes the study of all religious groups and beliefs among the various peoples of the world, past and present. The Journal of Religion and Society is a refereed academic journal dedicated to the publication of scholarly research in religion and its diverse social dimensions.
is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of society Institutional discrimination At one time, many Puerto Ricans were effectively barred from serving in the Chicago Police Department because they failed to meet the height requirement.
If men and women are equal then men should have the right to give birth and be actually able to. I will give the analogy of Lucifer wanting to be (become) G-d and ask you to compare this to women wanting to become (like) men, this eqaulity debate has become infested with spurious arguments. The struggle for gender equality in religion is still an issue despite the progress that has been made in bridging the divide.
It may be helpful to begin with careful observation of the relationship between religion and culture. The history of religion may corroborate the idea that religion informs culture and vice versa.